1. A LAN and a WAN may be differentiated by the types of media and devices used, by the distance over which they operate, by the network and subnet topology, and by the dominant communication protocols. Describe how LANs and WANs differ in each of these aspects. 2. Create a table to compare Novell, Windows, Mac, Unix, and Linux server operating systems. You should identify the most recent server operating system for each to consider. For Linux and Unix which have multiple variants, you may choose one current server variant. Include practical considerations such as cost as well as functional considerations. 3. You are hired by a firm that has offices in Peru, France, United States and Hungary. Your job is to coordinate a team of IT employees to connect all of the individual sites into one large WAN. Explain what the personnel implications are when setting up a WAN on a global basis. What are some of the barriers involved with global teams? 4. For the network that you have chosen to characterize, identify all items (peripheral devices, data, applications, access points, etc) being shared by users on the network. Explain how each is shared.

1. The key aspects that differentiate LANs and WANs include the types of media and devices used, the distance over which they operate, the network and subnet topology, and the dominant communication protocols.

In terms of media and devices, LANs typically use Ethernet cables to connect devices within a small geographic area, such as an office building. LANs commonly utilize switches to facilitate communication between devices. In contrast, WANs often rely on various media types, including leased lines, fiber-optic cables, or even satellites, to connect devices across larger distances. WANs also employ devices such as routers to direct traffic between different networks.

Distance is a crucial distinguishing factor as well. LANs are designed for relatively short distances, typically within a single building or campus. They provide high-speed and low-latency connections. In contrast, WANs span long distances, such as across cities, countries, or even continents. Due to the longer distances, WANs tend to introduce higher latency and lower bandwidth compared to LANs.

Network and subnet topology also differ between LANs and WANs. LANs often utilize simple topologies such as star or bus, where devices are directly connected to a central hub or backbone. Subnets, on the other hand, are used to divide a larger network into smaller logical segments to manage IP address allocation. In WANs, more complex topologies like mesh or hierarchical structures are employed to accommodate the wide geographical distribution of devices and networks.

The dominant communication protocols further distinguish LANs and WANs. In LANs, Ethernet is commonly used along with protocols like TCP/IP for interconnecting devices. LANs also support protocols like DHCP for IP address assignment and DNS for domain name resolution. In WANs, communication between sites often involves protocols like MPLS (Multi-Protocol Label Switching) or IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) to establish secure connections over public networks.

2. To compare the Novell, Windows, Mac, Unix, and Linux server operating systems, a table can be created to identify their most recent server operating systems, as well as practical and functional considerations.

Operating System | Most Recent Server OS | Cost | Functional Considerations
Novell | SUSE Linux Enterprise Server | Moderate | Excellent support for enterprise-level features and reliability.
Windows | Windows Server 2019 | High | Extensive compatibility with Windows-based applications and services.
Mac | macOS Server | Moderate | Seamless integration with the Apple ecosystem, suitable for small-scale deployments.
Unix | Oracle Solaris 11 | High | Superior stability and security, popular in enterprise environments.
Linux | Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS | Low | Wide range of distributions available, strong community support.

Practical considerations include the cost of the operating system, with Novell and Windows typically having higher costs due to licensing fees, while Linux and Unix variants offer more cost-effective options. Functional considerations involve assessing the specific features and capabilities offered by each operating system. For example, Novell’s SUSE Linux Enterprise Server excels in supporting enterprise-level features and reliability, making it suitable for large-scale deployments. Windows Server is known for its extensive compatibility with Windows-based applications and services. Mac’s macOS Server integrates seamlessly with the Apple ecosystem and is often chosen for small-scale deployments. Unix variants like Oracle Solaris 11 are known for their superior stability and security, making them popular choices in enterprise environments. Linux, on the other hand, offers a wide range of distributions to choose from, along with strong community support.

3. When setting up a WAN on a global basis, several personnel implications arise. Coordinating a team of IT employees to connect all the individual sites into one large WAN requires a diverse skill-set and expertise. Some personnel implications include the need for network engineers, system administrators, and support staff who are knowledgeable in designing, implementing, and managing WAN infrastructure. They should have experience with WAN technologies, such as routers, switches, and firewalls, as well as the ability to troubleshoot network issues that may arise across different geographic locations.

Another personnel implication is the need for project managers who can effectively coordinate and communicate with the global team members. Project managers should possess strong leadership and organization skills to ensure seamless collaboration and successful implementation of the WAN project. Additionally, language and cultural barriers may need to be addressed, as the global team may hail from different countries and languages. Effective communication strategies, language skills, and intercultural sensitivity are essential for ensuring clear and efficient collaboration among team members.

Barriers involved with global teams include time zone differences, which can make real-time communication challenging. Scheduling meetings or addressing urgent issues may require flexibility from team members. Moreover, differences in regulatory and legal frameworks across different countries can present challenges when implementing a coherent global WAN infrastructure. Compliance with local laws and regulations regarding data privacy and security should be considered to ensure a smooth and lawful operation of the WAN.

4. The chosen network involves multiple users sharing various items like peripheral devices, data, applications, and access points. Each item is shared differently based on its nature and requirements.

Peripheral devices, such as printers or scanners, are typically shared through a network connection. Users can send print jobs or scan requests to a central network device, which then facilitates the operation. This allows multiple users to access the shared peripherals simultaneously, increasing efficiency and productivity.

Data sharing can be achieved through shared network drives or file servers. Users can store and retrieve files from a centralized location accessible to authorized individuals within the network. This enables seamless collaboration and easy access to shared information.

Applications can be shared via network servers, where the applications are installed and made available for users to access remotely. This centralization allows for easier management and maintenance of software, as updates and patches can be applied at the server level rather than on individual machines.

Access points, such as Wi-Fi routers, enable wireless connectivity for users to connect to the network. These access points provide a shared connection for multiple users, allowing them to access resources and communicate within the network wirelessly.

In conclusion, the chosen network involves the sharing of various items through different mechanisms, such as peripheral devices through network connections, data through shared drives, applications through network servers, and access points through Wi-Fi routers. These sharing mechanisms enable efficient collaboration and resource utilization among users on the network.

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