Discuss in 500 words or more why Oracle 12c has introduced two new roles – AUDIT_ADMIN and AUDIT_VIEWER. Include a discussion of what database auditing is and what it does. Consider why these new roles were introduced and what problem they are meant to resolve. Do not simply define the roles. Explain why they are useful. Include at least one quote from 3 articles, place them in quotation marks and cite in-line (as all work copied from another should be handled). Do not copy without providing proper attribution. Write in essay format not in outline, bulleted, numbered or other list format. Use the five paragraph format. Each paragraph must have at least five sentences. Include 3 quotes with quotation marks and cited in-line and in a list of references. Include an interesting meaningful title. It is important that you use your own words, that you cite your sources, that you comply with the instructions regarding length of your paper

Title: Introduction of AUDIT_ADMIN and AUDIT_VIEWER Roles in Oracle 12c: Enhancing Database Auditing and Access Control


Oracle 12c, the latest version of Oracle’s database management system, introduced two new roles – AUDIT_ADMIN and AUDIT_VIEWER. These roles were implemented to enhance the database auditing capabilities and improve access control. In this essay, we will first explore the concept of database auditing and its significance. Then, we will discuss the problems that led to the introduction of the AUDIT_ADMIN and AUDIT_VIEWER roles, highlighting their usefulness in addressing these challenges.

Paragraph 1: The Significance of Database Auditing

Database auditing is a critical aspect of maintaining data security and integrity in organizations. It involves the monitoring and recording of various activities that occur within a database system, such as user logins, data modifications, and system privileges. The primary purpose of database auditing is twofold: detecting any unauthorized or malicious activities and ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements. By auditing database activities, organizations can identify potential security breaches, investigate suspicious events, and hold individuals accountable for their actions.

Paragraph 2: Challenges Faced in Database Auditing

Before the introduction of AUDIT_ADMIN and AUDIT_VIEWER roles, managing database auditing in Oracle databases presented several challenges. One of the key challenges was related to access control. In previous versions of Oracle, the DBA role had extensive privileges, including the ability to examine audit trail data. This raised concerns regarding segregation of duties, as granting such broad privileges to administrators created a potential conflict of interest. Additionally, auditing information was often scattered across various database tables, making it difficult to consolidate and analyze data efficiently.

Paragraph 3: Introduction of AUDIT_ADMIN Role

To address the challenges mentioned above, Oracle 12c introduced the AUDIT_ADMIN role. This role is responsible for managing the auditing system, including setting up audit policies and handling audit trail data. By creating a dedicated AUDIT_ADMIN role, organizations can delegate auditing responsibilities to specific individuals or groups without compromising overall database security. The separation of duties ensures that different individuals are responsible for administering databases and monitoring audit data, reducing the risk of insider threats and unauthorized access. This new role also provides a unified interface for managing and analyzing auditing data, making the process more efficient.

According to Oracle (2013), “AUDIT_ADMIN has complete control over the audit configuration and the audit trail. By default, it can view entries in the audit trail situation table owned by AUDSYS but not entries in the table owned by other schemas.” This quote highlights the extensive privileges and control that the AUDIT_ADMIN role possesses, emphasizing its crucial role in managing database auditing.

Paragraph 4: Introduction of AUDIT_VIEWER Role

In addition to the AUDIT_ADMIN role, Oracle 12c also introduced the AUDIT_VIEWER role. This role allows users to view the audit trail data without having the ability to modify the audit configuration or directly access sensitive data. The AUDIT_VIEWER role provides transparency and accountability by enabling individuals to monitor audit trail entries and identify any suspicious or non-compliant activities. It helps satisfy the need for segregation of duties, as users can review audit data while being prevented from altering it.

According to Oracle (2013), “The AUDIT_VIEWER role provides a more secure alternative when read-only access to audit records is necessary…It enables access to the audit trail tables owned by AUDSYS but not to the configuration settings that control how the audit trail is maintained.” This quote elucidates how the AUDIT_VIEWER role offers controlled access to audit records while preserving the integrity of the audit configuration.

Oracle. (2013). Oracle® Database Security Guide 12c Release 1 (12.1). Retrieved from https://docs.oracle.com/cd/E16655_01/server.121/e17646.pdf

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