Benchmark – Impact Analysis Part 1: Information Acquisition 3.1: Examine the laws, regulations, and standards that organizations use to align with government requirements around cybersecurity best practices within their industry. Select an industry of your choice and review its compliance requirements. Then, using a fictitious company that is just starting out, identify the essential elements of what is required to attain compliance or successful cybersecurity resilience. Within a report to the CIO, present this information from a legal standpoint making sure to address the following: 1.Identify any industry-specific compliances that must be met (i.e., HIPAA, COPPA, DOD). Determine what overarching guidance they must comply with. Determine what overarching laws they must comply with. 2.Examine the requisite set of standards, frameworks, policies, and best practices most helpful in the development and implementation of the organizations objectives. 3.Identify the organization’s critical data infrastructure assets (i.e., network, telecom, utilities, applications, computers, and client data categories). 4.Identify human resources for technical, management and legal operations. 5.Identify requisite law enforcement entities required for reporting breaches to (i.e., local, state, and federal areas of compliance)


In today’s digital age, cybersecurity has become a paramount concern for organizations across industries. As technology continues to advance, so do the threats posed by cybercriminals. To ensure the security and privacy of sensitive information, organizations must align with government requirements and adhere to industry-specific compliances, laws, regulations, and standards.

In this report, we will examine the laws, regulations, and standards that organizations in a chosen industry must follow to align with government requirements and cybersecurity best practices. We will then explore the essential elements required for a fictitious company to attain compliance or achieve successful cybersecurity resilience. This analysis will focus on the legal standpoint and provide recommendations to the Chief Information Officer (CIO).

Industry-Specific Compliances and Overarching Guidance

Every industry has its unique set of compliance requirements to safeguard critical information. In selecting an industry for this analysis, let us consider the healthcare sector. The healthcare industry is subject to various compliance standards, such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA), and Department of Defense (DOD) requirements.

HIPAA sets the standards for the privacy and security of protected health information (PHI) and requires healthcare organizations to implement administrative, physical, and technical safeguards to protect patient data. COPPA focuses on children’s privacy online and imposes obligations on organizations that collect personal information from children under the age of 13. DOD requirements apply to organizations that handle sensitive information related to national defense, requiring them to implement specific controls to protect classified information.

In addition to industry-specific compliances, organizations must also adhere to overarching guidance, such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Cybersecurity Framework. The NIST framework provides a comprehensive approach to managing and reducing cybersecurity risks. It includes core functions such as identify, protect, detect, respond, and recover, which guide organizations in developing and implementing cybersecurity best practices.

Requisite Set of Standards, Frameworks, Policies, and Best Practices

To develop and implement effective cybersecurity objectives, organizations should consider a range of standards, frameworks, policies, and best practices. These resources provide guidance on various aspects of cybersecurity, including risk assessment, incident response, access control, and data encryption.

One widely recognized standard is ISO/IEC 27001, which outlines the requirements for establishing, implementing, maintaining, and continually improving an information security management system. Adhering to ISO/IEC 27001 helps organizations ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of their information assets.

Frameworks such as the NIST Cybersecurity Framework and the Center for Internet Security (CIS) Controls provide organizations with a structured approach to cybersecurity management. These frameworks offer a set of best practices and controls that organizations can use to enhance their cybersecurity posture.

Policies play a crucial role in setting expectations and providing guidelines for employees and stakeholders. Organizations should develop and implement policies covering areas such as data classification, access control, incident response, and acceptable use of technology resources.

Best practices in cybersecurity include measures such as regular vulnerability assessments, penetration testing, employee training and awareness programs, and continuous monitoring of network traffic. By adopting these practices, organizations can ensure they have effective security measures in place to prevent and detect cyber threats.

Critical Data Infrastructure Assets

To achieve successful cybersecurity resilience, it is essential to identify the organization’s critical data infrastructure assets. These assets include the network, telecommunications systems, utilities, applications, computers, and client data categories. Each asset requires appropriate security controls and measures to protect against unauthorized access, disclosure, or destruction.

Networks form the backbone of modern organizations and must be protected from external threats. This includes securing firewalls, routers, switches, and other network components. Telecommunications systems, such as voice and data communication channels, must also be secured to prevent interception or unauthorized access to sensitive information in transit.

Applications and databases house valuable data and are prime targets for cyber attacks. Organizations must ensure proper authentication, access controls, and data encryption to protect against unauthorized access or data breaches. Computers, including servers and workstations, must be adequately protected with up-to-date security patches, antivirus software, and other security measures.

Finally, client data categories, such as personal information and financial data, are the most critical assets for many organizations. Appropriate measures, such as encryption, access controls, and secure storage, must be implemented to safeguard this information from unauthorized disclosure or misuse.

Human Resources for Technical, Management, and Legal Operations

Building a strong cybersecurity team is crucial for organizations striving for compliance and resilience. Human resources with the necessary technical, management, and legal skills are required to effectively manage the organization’s cybersecurity program.

Technical personnel, such as network administrators, system administrators, and security analysts, are responsible for implementing and maintaining security controls, conducting vulnerability assessments, responding to security incidents, and ensuring the overall security of the organization’s infrastructure.

Management personnel, including Chief Information Security Officers (CISOs) and IT managers, provide strategic direction, risk assessment, and oversight for the cybersecurity program. They ensure that cybersecurity policies, procedures, and controls are effectively implemented across the organization.

Legal personnel play a vital role in ensuring compliance with applicable laws, regulations, and contractual obligations. They provide legal guidance on data protection, privacy rights, incident response, and breach reporting requirements. Legal professionals also assist in drafting and reviewing contracts, service level agreements, and other legal documents related to cybersecurity.

Requisite Law Enforcement Entities for Reporting Breaches

In the event of a cybersecurity breach, organizations must report the incident to the appropriate law enforcement entities. This includes local, state, and federal agencies responsible for investigating cybercrimes and enforcing cybersecurity laws.

At the local level, organizations may need to report breaches to local law enforcement agencies, such as city or county police departments. State-level reporting may involve notifying the state’s attorney general’s office, state police, or other relevant agencies tasked with handling cybercrime investigations.

Furthermore, breaches involving sensitive or classified information may require reporting to federal entities such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), or other specialized agencies responsible for national security and cybersecurity.


In conclusion, organizations must align with government requirements and adhere to industry-specific compliances, laws, regulations, and standards to ensure cybersecurity resilience. These requirements include industry-specific compliances such as HIPAA, COPPA, and DOD regulations, as well as overarching frameworks and guidelines like the NIST Cybersecurity Framework.

To achieve compliance and successful cybersecurity resilience, organizations should consider a requisite set of standards, frameworks, policies, and best practices. Additionally, it is crucial to identify critical data infrastructure assets, allocate appropriate human resources, and establish relationships with law enforcement entities for reporting breaches.

By following these essential elements and taking a comprehensive approach to cybersecurity, organizations can mitigate risks, protect sensitive information, and maintain the trust of their stakeholders.

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