1. For each of these conditions – deadlock, race and starvation give at least two “real life” examples (not related to a computer system environment) of each of these concepts. Then give your own opinion on how each of these six conditions can be resolved. 2. If a deadlock occurs at a combination of downtown intersections, as shown in the figure below, explain in detail how you would identify that a deadlock has occurred, how you would resolve it after it happens, and how you would act to prevent it from happening again. 3. Regarding the role played by the “victim” in deadlock resolution, explain your answers to these questions. How is the victim chosen? What is the fate of the victim? Describe the actions required, if any, to complete the victim’s tasks. 4. Given the four primary types of resources-CPU, main memory, storage devices, and files-select for each one the most suitable technique (prevention, avoidance, detection and recovery) describes in this chapter to fight deadlock, and explain why that is your choice. Purchase the answer to view it

1. Introduction

Deadlock, race, and starvation are three important concepts in computer science that pertain to the efficient and effective management of resources. In this assignment, we will explore real-life examples of each of these concepts and discuss potential resolutions for each condition.

2. Deadlock

Deadlock occurs when two or more processes are unable to proceed because each is waiting for the other to release a resource. This can manifest in various real-life scenarios. For example, in a traffic intersection, deadlock can occur when two cars from perpendicular roads reach the intersection simultaneously and neither is able to pass due to the other’s presence. Another example can be seen in a restaurant where two customers are applying for the same seat at the same time, resulting in a deadlock situation.

To resolve a deadlock, several approaches can be taken. One method is resource preemption, wherein a resource is forcefully taken from one process and allocated to another to break the deadlock. Another approach is to use a deadlock detection algorithm to identify the presence of a deadlock and then employ strategies such as resource allocation or process termination to resolve it. Additionally, deadlock avoidance techniques can be implemented to ensure that resource allocation does not lead to a deadlock situation.

3. Race

In computer science, a race condition occurs when two or more processes or threads access shared data simultaneously, leading to unpredictable and potentially incorrect results. Real-life examples of race conditions can be observed in scenarios where multiple users attempt to access and modify the same file at the same time, leading to data corruption or loss. Another example can be found in a multiplayer online game where players compete for limited in-game resources, and their actions can impact each other’s progress.

To mitigate or resolve race conditions, synchronization techniques can be employed. For example, the use of locks, semaphores, or other concurrency control mechanisms can ensure that only one process or thread can access shared data at a time. Additionally, enforcing strict ordering of operations or implementing atomicity can prevent race conditions by ensuring that critical sections of code are executed without interference.

4. Starvation

Starvation refers to a scenario where a process is unable to access a resource it requires to execute, often due to other processes continually obtaining access to the resource. In the real world, a concrete example of starvation can be seen in a buffet restaurant where a particular dish is highly popular and constantly being replenished. If a customer continually arrives late and finds that the dish is already depleted, they may face the condition of resource starvation.

To address resource starvation, various strategies can be employed. One approach is to implement a fair scheduling algorithm, which ensures that all processes or users have an equal chance of accessing a resource. Another method is to introduce priorities, where higher priority processes or users are given preferential access to resources. Additionally, implementing appropriate resource allocation and release policies can help alleviate starvation conditions.

In conclusion, deadlock, race, and starvation are important concepts in computer science that have real-life implications. By understanding these concepts and exploring potential resolutions, we can strive to create more efficient and effective resource management systems.

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