Unit VII   Scholarly Activity Answer the following questions thoroughly, and submit in a document. 1. Describe seven database models, and give examples of each type. 2. Provide five examples of data you would store in a real, integer, text, logical, date, memo, and BLOB data field. 3. Using a real-world entity like a recipe file or collection of some sort that can be stored in a database, divide this information into fields and record types. Explain the steps you need to take to normalize the data. 4. Explain in your own words the differences between sorting and indexing. 5. Imagine that you must access a library card catalog using SQL. Write an SQL query that you would use to search for any books by J. J. Parsons in a table called Books, where author’s names are stored in a field called Title. 6. Explain the extent to which encryption, user privileges, and audits can secure a database. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations. Course Textbook(s) Parsons, J. J., & Oja, D. (2014). Newperspectives on computer concepts 2014, comprehensive [VitalSource Bookshelf version] (17th ed.). Boston, MA: Course Technology. Retrieved from Purchase the answer to view it

1. Database models are structures that define the organization and storage of data in a database. There are several types of database models, including:

– Hierarchical Model: In this model, data is organized in a tree-like structure with a single root node and multiple child nodes. Each child node can have multiple child nodes of its own. An example of this model is the Windows Registry, where settings are organized in a hierarchical structure.

– Network Model: Similar to the hierarchical model, but with multiple parent-child relationships instead of just one. This model allows for more complex relationships between data. An example is the Integrated Data Store (IDS) database management system.

– Relational Model: This is the most widely used database model, where data is organized in tables with rows and columns. Tables are related to each other using keys and foreign keys. Examples of this model are MySQL, Oracle, and Microsoft SQL Server.

– Object-Oriented Model: In this model, data is represented as objects with their own attributes and behavior. It allows for more flexible and complex data structures. An example of this model is the GemStone object database.

– Object-Relational Model: This model combines elements from the object-oriented model and the relational model. It allows for the storage of complex data structures as objects, while still maintaining the scalability and performance of the relational model. An example is the PostgreSQL database.

– Document Model: This model is designed for storing and retrieving semi-structured data, such as documents and JSON objects. It allows for flexible schemas and is used in NoSQL databases like MongoDB.

– Columnar Model: In this model, data is stored and retrieved by column rather than by row. It is optimized for analytical queries and provides efficient compression and storage. An example is the Vertica database.

2. Examples of data that can be stored in different data fields include:

– Real: temperature, weight, height
– Integer: age, number of items, quantity
– Text: name, address, description
– Logical: true/false, yes/no, on/off
– Date: birth date, date of purchase, event date
– Memo: long description, notes, comments
– BLOB (Binary Large Object): images, audio files, video files

3. To normalize data in a database, you need to identify the entities (such as recipes) and their attributes, and then divide them into tables and fields. For example, a recipe database could have tables for recipes, ingredients, and instructions. Each table would have different fields, such as recipe name, ingredient name, quantity, and instruction text. Normalization involves eliminating redundancy and ensuring data integrity by dividing the data into appropriate tables, defining relationships between the tables, and minimizing data duplication.

4. Sorting refers to arranging data in a specified order, such as alphabetical or numerical. It is done on the result set of a query or on a specific column of a table. Indexing, on the other hand, involves creating a separate data structure (an index) that points to the location of data in a table. It improves query performance by allowing the database system to quickly locate the desired data without scanning the entire table. Sorting is a temporary arrangement of data, while indexing is a permanent data structure that speeds up data retrieval.

5. To search for any books by J. J. Parsons in a table called Books, where author’s names are stored in a field called Title, the following SQL query can be used:

SELECT * FROM Books WHERE Title = ‘J. J. Parsons’;

This query selects all rows from the Books table where the Title field is equal to ‘J. J. Parsons’.

6. Encryption, user privileges, and audits can play a crucial role in securing a database. Encryption ensures that data is protected by encoding it in a way that can only be deciphered by authorized individuals. User privileges allow database administrators to control who can access and manipulate the data, ensuring that unauthorized users cannot make changes. Audits track and monitor database activity, providing a record of who accessed the database and what actions were taken. Together, these measures can significantly enhance the security of a database by protecting data from unauthorized access and maintaining a record of activities for auditing and forensic purposes.

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