Please respond to three topics below. Use links below for references. One page with references per topic. Topic 1 – One page response with references. A. What Are Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs)? B. How do they impact cybersecurity? C. Describe three Policies and Procedures to Mitigate APTs which you would recommend for organizations. Topic 2 – One page response with references. The nature of the Internet and worldwide connectivity has changed the  traditional centuries old paradigm regarding proximity.  We now see  threats from all parts of the global. What are three cybersecurity  policies for a firm that would mitigate risks for cybersecurity attacks  at the global level? Topic 3 –  One page response with references A. What is the purpose of a vulnerability assessment? B. Describe the key steps and common elements of vulnerability assessments and how often these assessments should take place. Reference material used for topics. Purchase the answer to view it Purchase the answer to view it

Topic 1: Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs) and their Impact on Cybersecurity

A. What Are Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs)?
Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs) refer to sophisticated and stealthy cyberattacks conducted by well-resourced and highly skilled attackers. APTs typically involve a long-term, targeted campaign aimed at compromising and infiltrating a specific organization’s network or infrastructure. These attacks are characterized by their persistent nature, as they are designed to remain undetected for extended periods. APTs use various tactics, such as social engineering, spear-phishing, and the exploitation of software vulnerabilities, to gain unauthorized access and extract sensitive information.

B. How do they impact cybersecurity?
APTs pose a significant threat to cybersecurity due to their advanced techniques and objectives. Unlike traditional cyberattacks, APTs are tailored and specifically designed for a particular target, making them harder to detect and defend against. Their stealthy nature often allows them to remain undetected for months or even years, giving attackers ample time to extract valuable information, disrupt operations, or cause significant damage. A successful APT attack can lead to financial losses, reputational damage, intellectual property theft, and compromise of customer data. Additionally, APTs may serve as a launching pad for further attacks, such as using compromised systems as a foothold for spreading malware or conducting additional cyber espionage activities.

C. Describe three Policies and Procedures to Mitigate APTs which you would recommend for organizations.
To mitigate the risks posed by APTs, organizations must implement comprehensive policies and procedures that address both technical and human factors. Here are three recommended measures:

1. Multi-layered Defense Strategy: Organizations should adopt a multi-layered defense approach that includes robust perimeter defenses, network segmentation, strong authentication mechanisms, encryption, and intrusion detection and prevention systems. This strategy ensures that even if one layer is compromised, the attacker is still obstructed by subsequent layers of defense.

2. Continuous Monitoring and Threat Intelligence: Organizations need to establish proactive monitoring capabilities to detect and respond to APTs early on. This includes employing advanced threat detection tools, implementing Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) systems, and subscribing to threat intelligence services. A continuous monitoring approach helps detect suspicious activities, such as unauthorized access attempts or unusual network traffic patterns, allowing organizations to thwart APTs in their early stages.

3. User Awareness and Training Programs: A crucial element in mitigating APTs is educating employees about potential risks and equipping them with the knowledge and skills to identify and report suspicious activities. Organizations should develop comprehensive user awareness and training programs that cover topics such as phishing awareness, secure password practices, and safe browsing habits. Regular training sessions and simulated phishing exercises help reinforce good cybersecurity practices and reduce the likelihood of successful APT attacks.

In conclusion, APTs represent a formidable cybersecurity threat due to their sophisticated nature and long-term objectives. Mitigating these threats requires a combination of technical measures and user-centric practices, such as multi-layered defense strategies, continuous monitoring and threat intelligence, and user awareness and training programs.

1. Mitre. (n.d.). Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) Intrusion Detection System (IDS) Challenge. Retrieved from (link)
2. U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (2017). Alert (TA17-293A): Advanced Persistent Threat Activity Targeting Energy and Other Critical Infrastructure Sectors. Retrieved from (link)
3. Mandiant, a FireEye Company. (2018). M-Trends 2018. Retrieved from (link)

(Next is Topic 2)

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