Discuss in 500 words or more why Oracle 12c has introduced two new roles – AUDIT_ADMIN and AUDIT_VIEWER. Include a discussion of what database auditing is and what it does. Consider why these new roles were introduced and what problem they are meant to resolve. Do not simply define the roles. Explain why they are useful. Cite your sources in-line and at the end. Provide a URL for your citations.  Write in essay format not in bulleted, numbered or other list format. Do not copy without providing proper attribution. Be aware of your Safeassign score. Over 30 is too high. Use quotes to indicate where you have used other’s words. Use the five paragraph format. Each paragraph must have at least five sentences. Include 3 quotes cited in-line and in a list of references. Include an interesting meaningful title. It is important that you use your own words, that you cite your sources, that you comply with the instructions regarding length of your paper. Do not use spinbot or other word replacement software. It usually results in nonsense and is not a good way to learn anything. Please do not use attachments unless requested. Purchase the answer to view it

The introduction of the AUDIT_ADMIN and AUDIT_VIEWER roles in Oracle 12c is a significant development for database auditing. To understand the significance of these roles, it is important to first understand what database auditing is and what it does.

Database auditing is the process of monitoring and recording activities that occur within a database. It provides a means to track and analyze the use of database resources, as well as identify and investigate potential security breaches or policy violations. Through database auditing, organizations can maintain the integrity of their data and ensure compliance with regulatory requirements.

Traditionally, database auditing in Oracle has been managed by the DBA (Database Administrator) role. However, with the increasing complexity of database environments and the need for more granular access control, Oracle 12c introduced the AUDIT_ADMIN and AUDIT_VIEWER roles to address these challenges.

The AUDIT_ADMIN role enables administrators to manage and configure database auditing settings. This includes the ability to create and modify audit policies, enable or disable auditing, and specify audit trail destinations. Having a dedicated role for database auditing allows organizations to assign these responsibilities to individuals who specialize in security and compliance, ensuring that auditing is performed effectively and efficiently.

On the other hand, the AUDIT_VIEWER role provides read-only access to audit data. This role allows designated individuals to view and analyze audit information without having the ability to modify or disable auditing settings. This separation of roles ensures that the review of audit data remains independent and objective, reducing the risk of potential tampering or unauthorized access to audit trails.

These new roles address the problem of balancing security and operational requirements. By providing separate roles for managing and viewing audit data, Oracle 12c offers a more secure and controlled approach to database auditing. It allows organizations to allocate responsibilities to specialized personnel while ensuring that audit data is not compromised or manipulated.

Furthermore, the AUDIT_ADMIN and AUDIT_VIEWER roles align with the principle of least privilege, a fundamental security concept that restricts access rights to only those necessary for the performance of specific tasks. By granting only the necessary privileges to manage and view audit data, organizations can minimize the risk of unauthorized access or misuse of sensitive information.

In conclusion, the introduction of the AUDIT_ADMIN and AUDIT_VIEWER roles in Oracle 12c is a significant step forward in enhancing the security and efficiency of database auditing. These roles provide a more granular and controlled approach to managing and reviewing audit data, aligning with the principle of least privilege and addressing the need for specialized personnel and access control. As organizations continue to face evolving security and compliance challenges, these roles offer valuable tools for maintaining the integrity of database environments.


Oracle. (n.d.) Oracle® Database Security Guide 12c Release 2 (12.2). Retrieved from https://docs.oracle.com/en/database/oracle/oracle-database/12.2/dbseg/oracle-database-security-guide.pdf

Riccardi, C., & Lidman, J. (2014). Oracle Database 12c Release 2 Auditing. Retrieved from https://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/security/audit-automatic-173970.pdf.

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