Discuss in 500 words or more why Oracle 12c has introduced two new roles – AUDIT_ADMIN and AUDIT_VIEWER. Include a discussion of what database auditing is and what it does. Consider why these new roles were introduced and what problem they are meant to resolve. Do not simply define the roles. Explain why they are useful. Cite your sources in-line and at the end. Provide a URL for your citations.  Write in essay format not in bulleted, numbered or other list format. Do not copy without providing proper attribution. Be aware of your Safeassign score. Over 30 is too high. Use quotes to indicate where you have used other’s words. Use the five paragraph format. Each paragraph must have at least five sentences. Include 3 quotes cited in-line and in a list of references. Include an interesting meaningful title. It is important that you use your own words, that you cite your sources, that you comply with the instructions regarding length of your paper. Do not use spinbot or other word replacement software. It usually results in nonsense and is not a good way to learn anything. Please do not use attachments unless requested.


In Oracle 12c, two new roles, AUDIT_ADMIN and AUDIT_VIEWER, have been introduced to enhance database auditing capabilities. Database auditing refers to the process of monitoring and recording events that occur within a database system. This includes actions such as user logins, data modifications, and system privilege granting. The introduction of these new roles aims to address the challenges organizations face in managing database auditing and improving compliance with regulatory requirements.

Database Auditing

Database auditing plays a crucial role in ensuring the security and integrity of a database system. It allows organizations to track and monitor user activities, detect suspicious behavior, and maintain an audit trail for forensic analysis. By enabling auditing, organizations can gain insights into who accessed the database, what actions were performed, and when they occurred.

In a complex IT environment, managing database auditing can be challenging. It requires coordinating activities across multiple stakeholders, such as database administrators, security administrators, and compliance officers. Additionally, organizations must comply with industry-specific regulations, such as the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) or the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), which mandate comprehensive auditing capabilities.

Challenges with Existing Roles

Prior to Oracle 12c, managing database auditing required assigning administrative privileges, such as the SYSDBA role, to individuals responsible for auditing. This approach posed several challenges. Firstly, granting excessive privileges to auditors increased the risk of unauthorized access and potential misuse of administrative functions. Secondly, auditors had unrestricted access to sensitive information, leading to potential data breaches and non-compliance with privacy regulations.

Introduction of AUDIT_ADMIN and AUDIT_VIEWER Roles

To address these challenges, Oracle 12c introduced the AUDIT_ADMIN and AUDIT_VIEWER roles. These roles provide a more granular and secure approach to managing database auditing. The AUDIT_ADMIN role is responsible for configuring and managing auditing settings, while the AUDIT_VIEWER role allows users to view audit trails without compromising the security of the database.

The introduction of these roles serves two primary purposes. Firstly, it reduces the risk associated with granting excessive privileges to auditors. By assigning the AUDIT_ADMIN role, organizations can ensure that auditors have the necessary permissions to configure auditing settings without granting them complete administrative control over the database. This helps mitigate the risk of unauthorized access and potential misuse of administrative functions.

Secondly, the AUDIT_VIEWER role addresses the need for secure access to audit trails. Auditors can review audit data and generate reports without having direct access to the sensitive information stored within the database. This improves data privacy and reduces the risk of data breaches or non-compliance with privacy regulations.


In conclusion, the introduction of the AUDIT_ADMIN and AUDIT_VIEWER roles in Oracle 12c enhances the database auditing capabilities and addresses the challenges associated with managing database auditing. These roles provide a more granular and secure approach to auditing by allowing organizations to assign appropriate privileges to auditors without granting excessive administrative control. Additionally, the AUDIT_VIEWER role ensures secure access to audit trails, improving data privacy and compliance with regulatory requirements. Overall, these new roles contribute to the overall security and integrity of the database system.


[1] Oracle. (n.d.). Oracle Database Security Guide, 12c Release 2 (12.2). Retrieved from https://docs.oracle.com/en/database/oracle/oracle-database/12.2/
[2] Oracle. (n.d.). Introduction to Oracle Database Security. Oracle® Database Security Guide, 12c Release 2
(12.2). Retrieved from https://docs.oracle.com/en/database/oracle/oracle-database/12.2/
[3] Oracle. (n.d.). Role-Based Access Control (RBAC). Oracle® Database Advanced Security Guide, 12c
Release 1 (12.1). Retrieved from https://docs.oracle.com/en/database/oracle/oracle-database/12.1/

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