1. Speedcoding was invented to overcome two significant shortcomings of the computer hardware of the early 1950s. What were they? 2. Why was the slowness of interpretation of programs acceptable in the early 1950s? 3. In what year was the Fortran design project begun? 4. Which version of Fortran was the first to have any sort of dynamic variables? 5. Where was LISP developed? By whom? 6. What dialect of LISP is used for introductory programming courses at some universities? 7. In what version of ALGOL did block structure appear? 8. In what year did the COBOL design process begin? 9. For what new line of computers was PL/I designed? 10. What language introduced the case statement? 11. What are two characteristics of C that make it less safe than Pascal? 12. What are the two kinds of statements that populate a Prolog database? 13. What Ada construct provides support for abstract data types? 14. What was the first application for Java? 15. What deficiency of the switch statement of C is addressed with the changes made by C# to that statement? 16. Where are servlets executed?

1. Speedcoding was invented to overcome two significant shortcomings of the computer hardware of the early 1950s. The first shortcoming was the limited memory capacity of the computers at that time. Early computers had very limited amounts of memory, which made it challenging to execute complex programs efficiently. Speedcoding addressed this issue by providing a technique to reduce the memory requirements of programs, allowing them to fit within the available memory.

The second shortcoming was the slow processing speed of early computers. Due to the limited hardware capabilities, computers of that era were much slower compared to modern computers. Speedcoding tackled this problem by introducing a way to optimize the execution time of programs, allowing them to run faster on the available hardware.

2. The slowness of interpretation of programs was acceptable in the early 1950s because there were no alternatives at that time. Computers were still in their early stages of development, and the focus was primarily on making them functional and accessible. The concept of high-speed execution or compiling programs into machine language was not yet widely adopted. Therefore, the relatively slower interpretation of programs was the only available method to run them on the computers of that time.

3. The Fortran design project began in the year 1953. Fortran, which stands for “Formula Translation,” was developed by IBM as a programming language specifically designed for scientific and engineering applications. It was the first high-level programming language and set the stage for subsequent programming language designs.

4. The first version of Fortran to have any sort of dynamic variables was Fortran 90. Dynamic variables allow for the allocation of memory during program execution, enabling more flexible and efficient memory management. Prior to that, earlier versions of Fortran had limited support for dynamic variables or required more convoluted programming techniques to achieve similar functionality.

5. LISP was developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) by John McCarthy in the late 1950s. LISP stands for “LISt Processing” and is a programming language known for its strong support for symbolic processing and artificial intelligence applications.

6. The dialect of LISP that is commonly used for introductory programming courses at some universities is called Scheme. Scheme is a variant of LISP that emphasizes simplicity and elegance in its design, making it suitable for teaching fundamental programming concepts.

7. Block structure appeared in ALGOL 60, which was the version of ALGOL released in 1960. Block structure allows for the grouping of statements and declarations into logical blocks, enabling better code organization and modularity.

8. The COBOL (Common Business-Oriented Language) design process began in the year 1959. COBOL was developed to address the need for a programming language that could efficiently handle business and administrative tasks. It became widely adopted in the business community and is still used today in legacy systems.

9. PL/I (Programming Language One) was designed for the new line of IBM System/360 computers. System/360 was a family of mainframe computers introduced in the 1960s and PL/I was developed as a general-purpose programming language specifically optimized for the capabilities of these new machines.

10. The case statement was introduced in the programming language ALGOL 68. The case statement allows for the efficient branching of program flow based on the evaluation of a variable or expression against multiple possible values or conditions.

11. Two characteristics of C that make it less safe than Pascal are its weak type checking and its direct memory manipulation capabilities. C allows for implicit type conversions, which can lead to unexpected results or potential security vulnerabilities. Additionally, C provides direct access to memory through pointers, which can be prone to errors and can result in memory corruption or security vulnerabilities if used incorrectly.

12. The two kinds of statements that populate a Prolog database are facts and rules. Facts are simple statements that assert specific information or relationships, while rules are used to define logical inferences or conditions based on the existing facts.

13. The Ada construct that provides support for abstract data types is the package. A package in Ada allows for the encapsulation of data and operations into a higher-level construct, providing abstraction and modularity in program design. Abstract data types are typically defined within packages, allowing for easier maintenance and reuse of code.

14. The first application for Java was the development of a networked printer system. James Gosling, the principal designer of Java, initially created the language to develop software for controlling networked devices, such as printers, in a distributed computing environment.

15. The deficiency of the switch statement in C that is addressed by the changes made in C# is the lack of support for complex data types, such as strings or objects, in the switch statement. In C#, the switch statement has been enhanced to include the capability to switch on non-integer values, including strings and enumerated types.

16. Servlets are executed on the server-side. They are server-side components that generate dynamic web content or handle HTTP requests from clients. Servlets run within a servlet container, such as Apache Tomcat, and are responsible for processing client requests and generating appropriate responses.

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