1- physical topologies Why is there a need to differentiate between logical and physical topologies? Is there a case where a network is using one logical topology and a different physical topology?  If yes, give example.  If no, why not? 2- Network topology You have been hired to design and implement a network. The client has a small number of users in a single office location. The client wants to use a topology that runs at 100 megabits per second (Mbps) and allows new systems to be added easily to the network. The client is concerned with cost and maintenance issues, such as cable failures that would cause the network to go down. Given this scenario, what topology would you recommend to the client and how your solution will address client’s issues?  Explain your answer. 3- VLAN VLANs do not save you the cost or administrative requirements of having routers. Nonetheless, Network administrators like to implement VLANs and consider them to be a worthwhile architecture. Discuss why this might be so, or if you disagree, discuss your reasons.

1- Differentiating between logical and physical topologies is important because they serve different purposes in a network.

Logical topology refers to the way in which data flows in a network, and it determines how devices communicate with each other. It is essentially a conceptual representation of the network and defines the paths that data follows from one device to another. Common logical topologies include bus, ring, star, and mesh.

Physical topology, on the other hand, refers to the actual layout and arrangement of devices, cables, and connections in a network. It determines how devices are physically connected to each other and how data is transmitted across the network. Examples of physical topologies include point-to-point, star, bus, and ring.

Differentiating between these two topologies is important because they can be independent of each other. It is possible for a network to have one logical topology and a different physical topology. This is known as a mismatched topology.

A common example of a network using a different logical and physical topology is a wireless network. In a wireless network, the logical topology may appear as a star, where all devices communicate with a central access point. However, the physical topology may be a mesh, where devices are connected wirelessly to each other in a network. This allows for flexible connections and avoids the need for physical cables.

In some cases, the physical topology may limit the choice of logical topology. For example, in a bus physical topology where devices are connected along a single cable, the logical topology would naturally be a bus as well. However, in a star physical topology where devices are connected to a central hub, multiple logical topologies can be implemented, such as a bus or a ring.

2- Given the scenario of a small office with cost and maintenance concerns, a topology that would be recommended is the star topology.

The star topology is characterized by a central hub or switch, to which all devices are connected. Each device has a dedicated connection to the central hub, ensuring that a cable failure in one device does not affect the entire network.

One of the advantages of the star topology is its ease of scalability. New systems can be easily added to the network by simply connecting them to the central hub. This makes it suitable for a client who wants to easily expand their network without disrupting existing connections.

In terms of cost and maintenance, the star topology can be cost-effective and easy to maintain. Cable failures are localized to individual devices, so the network as a whole will not go down if one cable fails. This reduces the need for extensive cable troubleshooting and maintenance. Additionally, the centralized nature of the star topology simplifies network management and troubleshooting, as all devices are connected to a single point.

Overall, the star topology would be a suitable solution for the client’s needs, as it offers a reliable and scalable network design while considering cost and maintenance concerns.

3- VLANs, or Virtual Local Area Networks, are logical networks created within a physical network infrastructure. While VLANs do not eliminate the need for routers, they provide several advantages and are considered a worthwhile architecture by network administrators.

One reason why VLANs are popular is their ability to enhance network security. By separating a network into multiple VLANs, each with its own broadcast domain, it becomes more difficult for unauthorized users to gain access to sensitive information. VLANs allow for greater control over network traffic and offer the ability to implement access control lists and firewall rules specific to each VLAN.

Another advantage of VLANs is their flexibility in network design. By logically segmenting a network, administrators can group devices based on criteria such as department, location, or function. This allows for better organization and management of network resources. For example, VLANs can be used to create virtual workgroups within a larger physical network, enabling better collaboration and easier administration.

VLANs also offer the potential for improved network performance. By separating broadcast domains, VLANs can limit the scope of broadcast storms, where excessive broadcast traffic can cause network congestion. VLANs enable more efficient use of network bandwidth by only allowing relevant traffic to be transmitted to devices within the same VLAN.

While implementing VLANs can add complexity to network setup and configuration, the benefits they provide in terms of security, flexibility, and performance often outweigh the additional administrative requirements. Therefore, it is understandable why network administrators consider VLANs to be a worthwhile architecture.

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