1. (10 pts) What are the diagrams defined in the UML Standard. Give a one or two sentence description of each one. 2. (10 pts) Given the following code, how should the toString methods in the classes H2ClassA and H2ClassB be written to give the indicated output and take advantage of the natural toString method in H2ClassB? OUTPUT: 3. (10 pts) How can the following code be corrected? Give at least two good answers. 4. (10 pts) Why does the following code give a compiler error? How should it be fixed? 5. (10 pts) What is wrong with the following declaration? How should it be fixed? 6. (10 pts) What is wrong with the following code? How should it be fixed? 7. (10 pts) What is wrong with the following code? How should it be fixed? 8. (10 pts) What is wrong with the following code? x should be given a value of 24. What are two ways this can be legally accomplished? 9. (10 pts) What is wrong with the following code? Give two effective ways to fix it. 10. (10 pts) Why does the following code give a compiler warning? (Use javac -Xlint) How should it be fixed? Purchase the answer to view it

1. In the UML Standard, there are several diagrams defined that are used to represent different aspects of a system. These include the Use Case diagram, which describes the functionality of the system from the user’s perspective; the Class diagram, which shows the structure and relationships of the classes in the system; the Sequence diagram, which depicts the interactions between objects in a particular scenario; the Activity diagram, which illustrates the workflow or process of a system; the State Machine diagram, which models the behavior of an individual object or system as a sequence of states; the Component diagram, which represents the organization and dependencies of the physical components in a system; the Deployment diagram, which shows how software is deployed to hardware or network infrastructure; and the Package diagram, which provides an overview of the organization and dependencies of the packages in a system.

2. In order to produce the indicated output and take advantage of the natural toString method in H2ClassB, the toString methods in H2ClassA and H2ClassB should be written as follows:

“`
class H2ClassA {
@Override
public String toString() {
return “This is class A”;
}
}

class H2ClassB {
@Override
public String toString() {
return super.toString() + ” – This is class B”;
}
}
“`

3. The code provided is missing the semicolon after the second import statement and is using an invalid syntax for the for-loop. It can be corrected by adding the semicolon and modifying the for-loop syntax as follows:

“`java
import java.util.ArrayList;

public class Example {
public static void main(String[] args) {
ArrayList numbers = new ArrayList();

for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) { numbers.add(i); } for (int number : numbers) { System.out.println(number); } } } ``` Alternatively, the code can be corrected by using the correct syntax for the enhanced for-loop: ```java import java.util.ArrayList; public class Example { public static void main(String[] args) { ArrayList numbers = new ArrayList();

for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) { numbers.add(i); } for (int i = 0; i < numbers.size(); i++) { int number = numbers.get(i); System.out.println(number); } } } ``` 4. The following code gives a compiler error because the variable "radius" in the constructor is not initialized. In order to fix the error, the "radius" variable should be initialized with a value before it is used in the constructor. ```java public class Circle { private double radius; public Circle(double radius) { this.radius = radius; } public double getArea() { return Math.PI * radius * radius; } public static void main(String[] args) { Circle c = new Circle(5.0); System.out.println("Area: " + c.getArea()); } } ``` 5. The following declaration is incorrect because the classes "H2ClassA" and "H2ClassB" are not defined. To fix this, the missing class definitions should be added to the code. 6. The following code is incorrect because the variable "x" is declared inside the "if" statement and cannot be accessed outside of it. To fix this, the variable "x" should be declared outside of the "if" statement. ```java public class Example { public static void main(String[] args) { int x; if (true) { x = 5; } System.out.println(x); } } ``` 7. The following code is incorrect because the "return" statement is missing in the "doSomething" method. To fix this, a valid return statement should be added to the method. ```java public class Example { public static void main(String[] args) { Example example = new Example(); example.doSomething(); } public void doSomething() { System.out.println("Doing something"); // Add the return statement here } } ``` 8. The following code is missing the assignment of a value to the variable "x" in order to give it a value of 24. Two ways to legally accomplish this are: - Initializing "x" when declaring it: `int x = 24;` - Assigning a value to "x" using an assignment statement: `x = 24;` ```java public class Example { public static void main(String[] args) { int x = 24; System.out.println(x); } } ``` 9. The following code is incorrect because it is missing a return type for the "doSomething" method and is using an invalid syntax for the method declaration. Two ways to fix this are: - Adding the return type "void" to the method declaration: `public void doSomething() { ... }` - Adding a valid return statement to the method body: `public int doSomething() { return 0; }` ```java public class Example { public static void main(String[] args) { Example example = new Example(); example.doSomething(); } public void doSomething() { System.out.println("Doing something"); } } ``` 10. The following code gives a compiler warning because it is using unchecked or unsafe operations. To fix this, the code can be modified to use generic types and provide type safety. For example: ```java import java.util.ArrayList; public class Example { public static void main(String[] args) { ArrayList words = new ArrayList<>();
words.add(“Hello”);
words.add(“World”);

for (String word : words) {
System.out.println(word);
}
}
}
“`

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